Apax Learning Co., Ltd

SCORM vs. xAPI: Choosing the Right Standard

SCORM vs. xAPI: Choosing the Right Standard for Modern eLearning

In the ever-evolving landscape of eLearning and digital education, selecting the right standard for tracking and managing learning experiences is crucial. Two prominent contenders in this domain are xAPI (Experience API) and SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model). Both standards play pivotal roles for instructional designers, educators, and eLearning developers aiming to enhance the effectiveness of online learning experiences. However, understanding the differences and nuances between these two standards is essential when deciding which one aligns best with your specific needs.

This comprehensive guide delves into the intricacies of xAPI and SCORM, highlighting their features, benefits, and limitations. By exploring the unique characteristics of each standard, we aim to help you make an informed decision, ensuring that your eLearning initiatives seamlessly align with your objectives and technological requirements. Whether you are a seasoned eLearning professional or just embarking on your digital education journey, this guide will provide valuable insights to assist you in selecting the most appropriate standard for your educational endeavors.

The Evolution of eLearning Standards

Before we dive into the comparison between xAPI and SCORM, it’s essential to understand the context in which these standards have evolved.

The Emergence of SCORM

SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) has long been the go-to standard for eLearning content packaging and delivery. It was developed in the late 1990s by the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) initiative, a part of the U.S. Department of Defense. SCORM was designed to ensure interoperability and reusability of eLearning content across various learning management systems (LMSs).

The core principles of SCORM include:

  • Content Packaging: SCORM enables the bundling of eLearning content into self-contained modules known as SCOs (Sharable Content Objects). These SCOs can be easily imported into different LMSs, making content sharing and distribution more straightforward.
  • Sequencing and Navigation: SCORM defines how content should be sequenced and navigated, allowing for standardized tracking of learners’ progress within a course.
  • Communication: SCORM specifies a set of runtime communication protocols that enable LMSs to track learner interactions and report them back to a central repository.

The Rise of xAPI

While SCORM served the eLearning community well for many years, it had limitations. SCORM primarily focused on tracking formal learning activities within the LMS, leaving informal and experiential learning experiences uncharted. This gap led to the development of xAPI (Experience API), also known as Tin Can API.

xAPI, released in 2013, aimed to address the shortcomings of SCORM by offering a more versatile and comprehensive approach to learning experience tracking. It was developed by the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) initiative as well, signaling a shift toward more modern eLearning standards.

The key features of xAPI include:

  • Broad Learning Experience Tracking: Unlike SCORM, xAPI is not limited to tracking activities within an LMS. It can capture a wide range of learning experiences, both online and offline, formal and informal, such as reading a book, attending a conference, or completing an eLearning module.
  • Data Portability: xAPI allows data to be stored in a Learning Record Store (LRS), which can exist independently of an LMS. This flexibility makes it easier to track and analyze learning experiences across different platforms and systems.
  • Adaptive Learning: xAPI supports adaptive learning by enabling the collection of detailed data about learners’ interactions. This data can be used to personalize learning experiences based on individual preferences and performance.

Now that we have a foundational understanding of SCORM and xAPI let’s delve deeper into a detailed comparison.

SCORM vs. xAPI: A Detailed Comparison

1. Data Tracking and Learning Experiences


SCORM is primarily designed to track and manage data related to formal learning experiences that occur within an LMS. It excels at monitoring completion status, test scores, and other standardized metrics for SCOs. However, it falls short when it comes to capturing data from informal or non-LMS learning experiences.


xAPI is renowned for its versatility in tracking a broad spectrum of learning experiences. It can capture data from various sources, including mobile apps, simulations, social learning platforms, and even real-world activities like on-the-job training. This adaptability makes xAPI a powerful tool for measuring and analyzing all learning experiences, formal and informal, within and outside the LMS.

2. Interoperability


One of SCORM’s primary strengths is its interoperability. SCORM-compliant content can be easily imported into different LMSs without major compatibility issues. This ensures that eLearning content can be shared and reused across various systems seamlessly.


xAPI also promotes interoperability, but it takes a different approach. Instead of focusing on content packaging, it emphasizes data portability. xAPI data can be stored in an LRS, allowing organizations to use various LMSs while still tracking and analyzing data in a consistent manner.

3. Reporting and Analytics


SCORM provides basic reporting capabilities, allowing organizations to track learners’ progress, completion rates, and assessment scores. However, it falls short in providing advanced analytics and detailed insights into learners’ behaviors and interactions.


xAPI shines in the realm of reporting and analytics. It can capture granular data about learner interactions, enabling organizations to gain deeper insights into how learners engage with content. This data can be used to create personalized learning paths, identify areas for improvement, and assess the effectiveness of different learning experiences.

4. Adaptability


SCORM is well-suited for traditional eLearning courses with linear content and assessments. It struggles to accommodate modern learning approaches, such as adaptive learning and microlearning, which require more flexibility in tracking and content delivery.


xAPI’s adaptability is one of its standout features. It supports adaptive learning by collecting detailed data on how learners interact with content. This data can be used to personalize learning experiences, adapt content on-the-fly, and create dynamic learning paths that cater to individual learner needs.

5. Offline Learning


SCORM is primarily designed for online learning experiences. While some workarounds exist for tracking offline activities, they are not native to the standard and may require additional development.


xAPI excels in tracking both online and offline learning experiences. It can capture data even when learners are not connected to the internet, making it suitable for scenarios like field training or mobile learning apps.

6. Future-Proofing


SCORM has been around for a long time and remains prevalent in many organizations. However, it is considered somewhat dated in its capabilities, especially when compared to the more modern approaches offered by xAPI.


xAPI is seen as a future-proof standard due to its adaptability and ability to accommodate emerging technologies and learning trends. It is well-positioned to evolve with the changing landscape of eLearning and digital education.

Final thought

In the fast-evolving world of eLearning, your choice between SCORM and xAPI can significantly impact your educational initiatives. SCORM, a longstanding standard, has its strengths but may limit your adaptability. In contrast, xAPI, with its versatility and data insights, opens doors to a broader range of learning experiences. The decision ultimately depends on your specific goals and the learning experiences you aim to deliver. Keep an eye on emerging trends to ensure your choice remains aligned with the ever-changing landscape of digital education.

Useful resources

What is e-learning?